Back to top


  1. Arlt EM, Krall EM, Moussa S, Grabner G, Dexl AK. Implantable inlay devices for presbyopia: the evidence to date. Clinical Ophtalmology. 2015; 9: 129-137.
  2. Mancil GL, Bailey IL, Brookman KE, Campbell JB, Cho MH, Rosenbloom AA, Sheedy JE. Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline - Care of the patient with presbyopia. American Optometric Association, 2011.
  3. Werner DL, Press JL. Clinical pearls in refractive care. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann. 2002;145.
  4. Meslin D. Cadernos de ótica oftalmológica. Essilor Academy Europe. 2008. 
  5. Grosvenor T. Primary care optometry. Anomalies of refraction and binocular vision, 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann. 2007;255. 
  6. Milder B, Rubin ML. The fine art of prescribing glasses without making a spectale of yourself, 2nd edition. Gainesville, FL: Triad. 1991: 182-184.
  7. Boroyan HJ, Cho MH, Fuller BC, Lined multifocal wearers prefer progressive addition lenses. Journal American Optometry Association. 1995; 66:296-300.
  8. Borish I, Hitzeman S. Comparison of the acceptance of progressive addition multifocals with blended bifocals. Journal American Optometry Association. 1983; 54:415-22.
  9. Gresset J. Subjective evaluations of a new multi- design lens. Journal American Optometry Association. 1991; 62:691-8. 
  10. Cho MH, Lappe KL. The effect of cylinder correction on with Varilux progressive addition lenses. South Journal Optometry. 1991; 9:15-7. 
  11. Cho MH, Barnette CB, Aiken B, Shipp M. A clinical study of patient acceptance and satisfaction of Varilux Plus and Varilux Infinity lenses. Journal American Optometry Association. 1991; 62:449-53.
  12. Wittenberg S, Grolman B. Environmental optics in near-point prescribing. Problem Optometry. 1990; 2:60-76. 
  13. Goldberg DB. Comparison of myopes and hyperopes after laser in situ keratomileusis monovision. Journal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2003; 29(9):1695–1701. 
  14. Alio JL, Amparo F, Ortiz D, Moreno L. Corneal multifocality with excimer laser for presbyopia correction. Current Opinion Ophthalmology. 2009;20(4):264–271.
  15. Konij M, Haensel C, Jaschinsky W. How to place the computer monitor: measurements of vertical zones of clear vision with presbyopic corrections. Clinical Optometry 2015; 98: 244-253.
  16. Sippel KC, Jain S, Azar DT. Monovision achieved with excimer laser refractive surgery. International Ophthalmology Clinics. 2001;41(2):91–101.
  17. Westin E, Wick B, Harrist RB. Factors influencing success of monovision contact lens fitting: survey of contact lens diplomates. Optometry. 2000; 71: 757–763.
  18. Yilmaz OF, Bayraktar S, Agca A, Yilmaz B, McDonald MB, van de Pol C. Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia. Journal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2008; 34(11):1921–1927.
  19. Yılmaz OF, Alagöz N, Pekel G, Azman E, Aksoy EF, Cakır H, Bozkurt E, Demirok A. Intracorneal inlay to correct presbyopia: Long-term results. Journal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2011 Jul;37(7):1275-81 
  20. Finkelman YM, Ng JQ, Barrett GD. Patient satisfaction and visual function after pseudophakic monovision. Jounal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2009;35(6):998–1002. 
  21. Menapace R, Findl O, Kriechbaum K, Leydolt- Koeppl C. Accommodating intraocular lenses: a critical review of present and future concepts. Graefes Archives Clinical Experimental Ophthalmology. 2007;245(4):473–489.
  22. Kanitkar K, Carlson AN, Richard Y. Ocular problems associated with computer use: The ever-increasing hours spent in front of video display terminals have led to a corresponding increase in visual and physical ills. Review of Ophthalmology 2005. 
  23. Manual de Ergoftalmologia. Sociedade Portuguesa de Oftalmolgia - Grupo Português de Ergoftalmologia. 2016. 
  24. Callina T, Reynolds TP. Traditional methods for the treatment of presbyopia: spectacles, contact lenses, bifocal contact lenses. Ophthalmology Clinical North American. 2006; 19:25-33. 
  25. Ellison, Ashton C et al. “Prismatic Displacement Effect of Progressive Multifocal Glasses on Reaction Time and Accuracy in Elderly People.” Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.). 2014; 8: 891–902.
  26. Wilson WJ. Presbyopia: a practice and marketing guide for vision care professionals. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. 1996:49-55.
  27. Jain S, Arora I, Azar DT. Success of monovision in presbyopes: review of the literature and potential applications to refractive surgery. Survey Ophthalmology. 1996; 40(6):491–499.
  28. Collins MJ, Goode A. Interocular blur suppression and monovision. Acta Ophthalmology Scand. 1994; 72: 376–380. 
  29. Bennett ES. Contact lens correction of presbyopia. Experimental Optometry. 2008; 91: 3: 265–278.
  30. Evans BJ. Monovision: a review. Ophthalmic Physiology Optics. 2007; 27:417-39. 
  31. Fernandes PRB, Neves HIF, Lopes-Ferreira DD, Meijorm JMG. Adaptation to multifocal contact lens correction. Optometry and Vision Science. 2013; 90(3): 228-235.
  32. Bennett ES. Remba MJ, Weissman BA. Contact lenses and the elderly patient. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW, eds. Vision and aging, 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann. 1993:251-89.
  33. du Toit R, Ferreira JT, Nel ZJ. Visual and nonvisual variables implicated in monovision wear. Optometry Vision Science. 1998; 75(2):119–125.
  34. McGill E, Erickson P. Stereopsis in presbyopes wearing monovision and simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses. American Journal Optometry Physiological Optics 1988; 65:619-26.
  35. Telandro A. Pseudo-accommodative cornea: a new concept for correction of presbyopia. Journal Refractive Surgery. 2004. 20(Suppl 5): S714–S717. 
  36. Pinelli R, Ortiz D, Simonetto A, Bacchi C, Sala E, Alio JL. Correction of presbyopia in hyperopia with a center-distance, paracentral-near technique using the Technolas 217z platform. Jounal Refractive Surgery. 2008; 24(5):494–500.
  37. Esquenazi S, He J, Kim DB, Bazan NG, Bui V, Bazan HE. Wound-healing response and refractive regression after conductive keratoplasty. Jounal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2006; 32(3): 480– 486.
  38. Ehrlich JS, Manche EE. Regression of effect over long-term follow-up of conductive keratoplasty to correct mild to moderate hyperopia. Journal Cataract Refractive Surgery. 2009; 35(9): 1591–1596.
  39. Ruiz LA, Cepeda LM, Fuentes VC. Intrastromal correction of presbyopia using a femtosecond laser system. Journal Refractive Surgery. 2009; 25(10): 847–854.
  40. Torricelli AAM, Junior JB, Santiago MR, Bechara SM. Surgical management of presbyopia. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2012; 6: 1459-1466.